Reference Publications

Scientific research papers

When we started to look at creating a safe and natural formula to prevent mosquito bites we waded through seemingly endless, and often contradictory, scientific research papers and publications. Our own research had initially provided a wealth of information about which ingredients showed the most promise. We had also dismissed a lot of ingredients, lotions and potions that had absolutely no repellent properties despite the urban myths of efficacy surrounding them.

The end result was “No Mozzie” – an extremely effective, long lasting mosquito repellent that is formulated from natural ingredients, and contains no alcohol or water.

We’ve curated some of the more interesting and well-presented scientific research papers below.

This is a thesis from the Institute of Physical and Theoretical Chemistry at Regensburg University. We found it particularly interesting because not only does it discuss a new method for extracting PMD that results in a water-soluble version, it also discusses the difference between “contact” repellency and “space” repellency – features that we are particularly proud of in “No Mozzie”.

A simple field test of 5 substances in Ethiopia. It compares products containing DEET, PMD, Neem and Chinaberry in real-world conditions for their ability to protect against bites from Malaria mosquitoes (Anopheles arabiensis). PMD scores as well as DEET. Neem scores very well too.

An in-cage test of three essential oils against Dengue Fever mosquitoes (Aedes aegypti) in Thailand. All three oils demonstrated a higher effectiveness than a chemical product IR3535. Of the three oils, Lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus) came out on top.

Excellent article that discusses the use and efficacy of both essential oils and chemical products. Shows that PMD is more effective than DEET against ticks that transmit Lyme Disease and Rocky Mountain fever.

One of our favorite pieces of research. This is a very broad article that covers plant-based repellents and their efficacy. It’s a wrap-up of various field tests from around the world. The tests are unchallenged though, and some of them have very dubious results or have just been misreported – such as the 2% Soy Oil result.

This article from the Department of Entomology at the University of California, makes for good general reading on PMD (Citriodiol / Oil of Lemon Eucalyptus) showing that it is completely effective at repelling mosquitoes at concentrations of 20% or more, and is actually more effective than DEET. Great news for No Mozzie users.

This isn’t a research paper but is a good reference for Dengue Fever – a mosquito-borne virus (arbovirus) that is becoming increasingly common. It’s effectively treated with simple saline drip which hugely reduces the disease’s fatality. Our founder Jay has had Dengue – he says it’s horrible and doesn’t want it again thank you very much.